Here’s Everything You Need To Know About Harvard Referencing
If you’re struggling with referencing your essays or worried you’re not doing it right, this will help you.
Here’s how to reference within the body of your essay.
If you’re just referencing a single author, here’s what you need to do.
If you’ve mentioned the author in your own text, you only need to reference the year of publication and page numbers:
“Smith (2016) makes it clear that…” or “It is clear, according to Smith (2016, pp.12), that…”
If your text doesn’t include the author’s name, put it in brackets:
“It is clear that… (Smith, 2016, pp.12).” or “It is clear that… (Smith, 2016).”
And if you want to include multiple references in a sentence.
It’s the same as before, but make sure you mention both authors:
“Smith (2016) and Williams (2015) make it clear that…”
And if you don’t mention their names in your own text, cite them as below:
“Research conducted recently makes it clear that… (Smith, 2016; Williams, 2015).”
If you need to reference a book by two or three authors.
Each name should be cited in the order their names appear on the original text.
“It is made clear by Smith, Williams and Davies (2016) that…”
“It is made clear that… (Smith and Williams, 2016).”
And if there are four or more authors.
Just use et al. which basically means “and others”. List the first author’s name followed by et al. Always use the full-stop, even when a comma follows it.
“Smith, et al. (2016) make it clear that…”
“It is made clear that… (Smith, et al., 2016).”
When you’re using multiple works by the same author.
If the same author validates your argument in more than one of their works, reference both as below:
“It is made clear by Smith (2015; 2016) that…”
“It is made clear by research (Smith, 2015; 2016) that…”
If the works were published in the same year, you reference them like this:
“It is made clear by research (Smith, 2016a; 2016b) that…”
And if you ever need to reference a reference.
Sometimes you might want to reference something you’ve found in another book, but can’t find the original source. This is called a secondary reference and you include it like this:
“(Smith, 2002 cited in Williams, 2016, p.56)”
Smith is the quote or reference you’re referring to, but you read it in Williams’ work.
And here’s how to put together a reference list.
This appears at the end of your essay, sometimes called a bibliography. There is a Harvard standard format, but some small variations could be accepted as long as you are consistent. To be safe, stick to the prescribed format.
Referencing a book.
They key information you need is Name, Year, Title, Place of publication and Publisher. If what you’re referencing isn’t the first edition you also need to include that. See below for an example:
Smith, A., 2016. Title of Book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
And if the book has multiple authors your citation should look like this.
Smith, A., Williams, B. and Davies, O. 2016. Title of Book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
To reference a chapter in an edited book.
Chapter author’s last name, Initials., Year of chapter publication. Title of chapter. In: Editor’s Initials. Last name, ed., Year of book. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher.
Listing multiple works by the same author.
Order the citations by year of publication, with the earliest first. If your sources by multiple authors were published in the same year, you can differentiate between them by adding a lower case letter after the date.
Last name, Initials., 2016a. Title of Book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
Last name, Inititals., 2016b. Title of Book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
For books that have been translated.
Last name, Initials., Year published. Title of Book. Translated from (language) by (initials then last name of translator). Place of publication: Publisher.
Magazine/journal articles available online should look like this.
Last name, Initials., Year published. Title of Article. Full Title of Magazine, [online] Available at: <URL for article> [Accessed date].
And webpages like this.
Authorship or Source, Year published. Title of web page. [online] (date of update if available) Available at: <website URL> [Accessed date].
Here’s how you reference DVD, video or film.
Title of Film. Year released. [type of medium] Director. (if relevant) Country of origin: Film studio or maker.
Only include the edition of a book if it isn’t the first edition and the place of publication should always be a town or city, not a country.
Good luck 💪